Cliff Trafzer (Wyandot)
Clifford E. Trafzer is professor of history at the University of California, Riverside, where he is also director of Graduate Studies. He holds the Rupert Costo Chair in American Indian Affairs and is on the board of the California Center for Native Nations. He has published several books, including Death Stalks the Yakama, Native Universe, and Renegade Tribe. He recently edited Native Americans/American Presidents for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian.
Native American Treaties, Northeastern Oregon
After American immigrants arrived in the Oregon Territory in the 1840s, representatives of the United States established policies for Indigenous peoples in northeastern Oregon. By that time, the government had honed its policies and protocols in dealing with Native people, which included treaties, war, removal, and concentration on reservations. In …
Walla Walla Treaty Council 1855
The treaty council held at Waiilatpu (Place of the Rye Grass) in the Walla Walla Valley in May and June of 1855 forever changed the lives of Native Americans living in north-central and eastern Oregon. The fate of the Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla Walla Indians who lived in that part …