A third-generation Oregonian, Kurt Nelson grew up in the Portland area and graduated from Portland State University with a degree in history and political science. He received a master's degree in public administration from Lewis & Clark College. Nelson is the author of numerous articles and two books on Northwest history: Fighting for Paradise: A Military History of the Pacific Northwest (2007) and Treaties and Treachery: The Northwest Indians’ Resistance to Conquest (2011). He lives in Milwaukie.
During the Civil War era, tens of thousands of people immigrated to the Pacific Northwest. While they avoided the war, they faced conflict with Native people whose homelands were being threatened. On the Applegate Trail, the new settlers met particular resistance from the Modocs, and the Oregon legislature called …
One of the three major forts designed to protect the mouth of the Columbia River, Fort Stevens was constructed on the Oregon side of the river's mouth. The three forts—Fort Stevens, and, in Washington, Forts Columbia and Canby—were authorized by an act of Congress in February 1862 to provide …